Prior to its selection
as winner of what was then known as the Advanced Tactical Fighter (ATF)
competition, the F-22 team conducted a 54-month demonstration/
validation (dem/val) program. The effort involved the design,
construction and flight testing of two YF-22 prototype aircraft. Two
prototype engines, the Pratt & Whitney YF119 and General Electric
YF120, also were developed and tested during the program. The dem/val
program was completed in December 1990.
Much of that work was
performed at Boeing in Seattle, Lockheed (now known as Lockheed
Martin) facilities in Burbank, Calif., and at General Dynamics' Fort
Worth, Texas, facilities (now known as Lockheed Martin Tactical
Aircraft Systems). The prototypes were assembled in Lockheed's
Palmdale, Calif., facility and made their maiden flight from there.
Since that time Lockheed's program management and aircraft assembly
operations have moved to Marietta, Ga., for the EMD and production
A $9.55 billion
contract for Engineering and Manufacturing Development (EMD) of the
F-22 was awarded to the industry team of Boeing and Lockheed Martin in
August 1991. Contract changes since then have elevated the contract
value to approximately $11 billion. Under terms of the contract, the
F-22 team will complete the design of the aircraft, produce production
tooling for the program, and build and test nine flightworthy and two
In February 1995, the
Air Force customer approved the final design of the F-22 air vehicle
and confirmed that the program was ready to proceed to fabrication and
assembly. The Air Force plans to procure 339 F-22s, and production is
scheduled to run through 2013.
Above info from The US Air Force
below from: F22-raptor.com
|These are the common
points of contention within the media on the F22:
These points have shaped the F-22's history. However, they all are
answered and prove no point to derail the F-22's future:
with advanced surface-to-air missiles available both to major
powers and bands of dissidents hungry for vindication, our F-15
is already behind the curve. Surface-to-air missiles, because of
their relatively low cost, are a quick and easy way for
countries to modernize their air defense systems. Twenty-one
countries will possess the most advanced systems by 2005. Some
are already denying America access to airspace around the globe
because they pose a formidable challenge to the F-15.
Amid sophisticated air defenses, the F-22 can cover more than
ten times more battlefield compared to the F-15.
The F-15 has always been a great aircraft, a great fighter for
which we can give thanks, but its heyday is over. We can maintain a nearly
30-year-old aircraft, but we cannot, practically speaking,
continue to bolt new features onto old technology and hope to
retain air dominance.
The Air Force investigated a "bolt-on stealth" variant
of the F-15. The amount of "stealth" achieved was
modest, and the cost for a third of the relative combat
effectiveness of the F-22 amounted to 90 percent of the cost of
the F-22 itself.
Nevada congressman Jim Gibbons, a former USAF pilot, wrote in a
1999 letter to his colleagues, “The F-15 is
‘trailing-edge’ technology compared to the F-22 Raptor; when
you get into a dogfight with trailing-edge technology, one thing
will happen: leading edge technology will win, period.”
It is time to say goodbye and move on. The F-15 has been in
service for nearly 25 years. It requires costly upgrades to
aircraft systems to meet rough parity with existing threats.
Continue with it as our mainstay, and we will be bested by rival
technology as early as 2005.
F-22 is the only stealth air dominance fighter America is
building. Lockheed Martin is leading its development, as well as
that of the JSF. It is up to the Pentagon to decide if, when and
how each of those aircraft should be developed, built, and
The Joint Strike Fighter is not an alternative to the F-22. It
is meant to work in tandem with the F-22 as a multirole fighter,
similarly to the synergistic team of the F-15 and F-16 today.
Neither the Navy's Super Hornet nor the JSF can perform the
F-22's air dominance mission. They are primarily air-to-ground
attack aircraft with a secondary air-to-air combat capability.
Redesigning the JSF for an air dominance role would make it more
difficult for the program to meet the Navy and Marine Corps'
needs, and break the underlying premise of the JSF as an
affordable, tri-service combat aircraft. Such a redesign will
significantly increase the JSF Program's costs and technical
risk, and disrupt its development, test and production
schedules. To meet the Air Dominance Key Performance Parameters,
the JSF would require redesign at substantial cost and time and
would field no earlier than 2015.
F-15's and F-16's cannot safely and effectively protect the JSF
because their non-stealthy airframes would reveal the location
of the stealthy JSF — placing their pilots in jeopardy.
F-22 Raptor achieves air dominance through the skillful blending
of stealth technologies, supercruise engines, agility though
thrust vectoring, and integrated avionics. Two Pratt &
Whitney F119-PW-100 engines allow the Raptor to soar to
uncontested heights and achieve dry-thrust speeds unheard of by
today’s fighters. Its main weapons bays are packed with either
six radar-guided AIM-120 medium-range missiles or two AIM-120s
and two GBU-32 Joint Direct Attack Munitions (JDAMs) for ground
attack. The F-22 also packs two heat-seeking AIM-9 short-range
missiles, one in each of its side weapons bays. As a result, the
Raptor can fly very high, very far, and very fast with little
risk of detection or intercept and strike with near-impunity
against both airborne and ground-based targets. It is the one
aircraft that can support American air dominance, giving us an
dominance is a precondition for all other successful combat
operations in modern warfare. As General Eisenhower said after
the D-Day invasion, "If I didn't have air supremacy, I
wouldn't be here."
Air dominance has proven instrumental in nearly every modern
military victory, from the invasion of Normandy in World War II
to the more recent Desert Storm operation. More importantly, it
minimizes U.S. casualties and losses.
Since WWII, the U.S. has always had a state-of-the-art dominance
fighter, usually with a ten-year lead on other countries'
If we seek air dominance as this century unfolds, we must get on
with the F-22. The goal is not parity or slight advantage. It is
overwhelming advantage. We must defeat opposing fighters,
air-defense radars, and surface-to-air missiles by a decisive
margin. The mission requires an airplane that will not only fly
undetected and see the enemy first but also outfly and
outmaneuver the enemy in combat engagements.
The F-22 is a national asset that will guarantee our soldiers,
sailors, airmen and marines the ability to operate free from air
attack. And come home safe.
F-22 is ready to go into production.
The F-22 is flying today with more than 1100 flight test hours
and is meeting or exceeding all Air Superiority Key Performance
Parameters. The purpose of every flight test program is to
determine an aircraft’s final design. Simulation is useful up
to a point, but there are certain parameters that can only be
conclusively validated through actual flight testing. Testing to
date has indicated that the F-22 will require minot necessary
design refinements and we have made these changes. Now that the
aircraft delivery rate has increased, we expect the number of
flight test hours to increase dramatically and quickly.
Team has met or exceeded every developmental and flight test
milestone to date, including supercruise at speeds greater than
1.5 Mach with no afterburner. Superior maneuverability
throughout the flying envelope from sea level to 50,000 feet,
assuring that the F-22 will maintain a distinct advantage in
visual range dogfights. Integrated avionics delivering
unprecedented situational awareness. Highly stealthy signature.
Supercruising was reached in . The 50,000 feet benchmark
F-22 avionics have been tested on the ground and in a flying
test bed, reducing the number of flight tests needed and
identifying anomalies early in the program, when they are less
costly to correct.
The F-22 has undergone the most extensive and sophisticated
testing of any combat aircraft ever developed. Over 42 months
and over 900 hours, in comparison to the F-18 A/B (100 hours
before production), F-16 (brief testing before production) and
the F-15 (180 hours before production).
Compared to the F-15, F-16 and the F/A -18, the F-22 has already
completed more flight test time than any of the other three
aircraft at their production decision points.
F-22 is creating an estimated EMD 25,000 jobs, plus 21,000
production jobs, with 42,000 total projected personnel on
production. The positive economics of the F-22 will impact 5,000
firms across 48 states and Puerto Rico. Virtually every state in
the union has aerospace firms that manufacture the smaller
components that make up the F-22. In California alone, there are
380 companies that support the F-22 with a total contract value
in excess of $575 million.
F-22 will require only half the F-15's support personnel,
because it can fly twice as long as the Eagle between
maintenance periods and be made ready for combat in 1/3 less
time than the F-15.
With an average aircraft "sticker price" of less than
$84 million – not $200 million as is often quoted in the F-22
-- the F-22’s average annual program costs will be less than
1.5% of the DOD budget during its production period. In
addition, 2/3 of fighter life-cycle costs are incurred after
production in the form of maintenance, munitions and other
support costs - and the F-22 is expected to be significantly
less expensive to operate than the F-15.
Many of the media stories to date focus on the cost issues
around the F-22 here and now. Politics are a staple of news
coverage and one of the most significant factors to judge
newsworthiness is the degree of controversy involved. The media
tend to focus here and do not judge it to be within their
purview to address the strategic necessity of having the F-22
– the importance of having an asymmetric advantage against all
would-be adversaries. By 2005, over 21 countries will maintain
arsenals formidably challenging to the F-15. The balance of
world power will tip accordingly.
The F-22 provides
"first-look, first-shot, first-kill" capability. It
can see the enemy first while avoiding detection itself. When we
meet the enemy, we want to win 100-0, not 51-49. Why? Simple.
American lives. The F-22’s effectiveness minimizes the loss of
American lives. What price will you put on these?
Above Questions and
answers from: F22-raptor.com